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History of Travel & Tourism

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2000 years Before Christ, in India and Mesopotamia

Travel for trade was an important feature since the beginning of civilisation. The port at Lothal was an important centre of trade between the Indus valley civilisation and the Sumerian civilisation.

600 BC and thereafter

The earliest form of leisure tourism can be traced as far back as the Babylonian and Egyptian empires. A museum of historic antiquities was open to the public in Babylon. The Egyptians held many religious festivals that attracted the devout and many people who thronged to cities to see famous works of arts and buildings.

In India, as elsewhere, kings travelled for empire building. The Brahmins and the common people travelled for religious purposes. Thousands of Brahmins and the common folk thronged Sarnath and Sravasti to be greeted by the inscrutable smile of the Enlightened One- the Buddha.

500 BC, the Greek civilisation

The Greek tourists travelled to sites of healing gods. The Greeks also enjoyed their religious festivals that increasingly became a pursuit of pleasure, and in particular, sport. Athens had become an important site for travellers visiting the major sights such as the Parthenon. Inns were established in large towns and seaports to provide for travellers’ needs. Courtesans were the principal entertainment offered.


This era also saw the birth of travel writing. Herodotus was the worlds’ first travel writer. Guidebooks also made their appearance in the fourth century covering destinations such as Athens, Sparta and Troy. Advertisements in the way of signs directing people to inns are also known in this period.

The Roman Empire

With no foreign borders between England and Syria, and with safe seas from piracy due to Roman patrols, the conditions favouring travel had arrived. First class roads coupled with staging inns (precursors of modern motels) promoted the growth of travel. Romans travelled to Sicily, Greece, Rhodes, Troy and Egypt. From 300 AD travel to the Holy Land also became very popular. The Romans introduced their guidebooks (itineraria), listing hotels with symbols to identify quality.

Second homes were built by the rich near Rome, occupied primarily during springtime social season. The most fashionable resorts were found around Bay of Naples. Naples attracted the retired and the intellectuals, Cumae attracted the fashionable while Baiae attracted the down market tourist, becoming noted for its rowdiness, drunkenness and all- night singing.

Travel and Tourism were to never attain a similar status until the modern times.

In the Middle Ages

Travel became difficult and dangerous as people travelled for business or for a sense of obligation and duty.

Adventurers sought fame and fortune through travel. The Europeans tried to discover a sea route to India for trade purposes and in this fashion discovered America and explored parts of Africa. Strolling players and minstrels made their living by performing as they travelled. Missionaries, saints, etc. travelled to spread the sacred word.

Leisure travel in India was introduced by the Mughals. The Mughal kings built luxurious palaces and enchanting gardens at places of natural and scenic beauty (for example Jehangir travelled to Kashmir drawn by its beauty.

Travel for empire building and pilgrimage was a regular feature.

The Grand Tour

From the early seventeenth century, a new form of tourism was developed as a direct outcome of the Renaissance. Under the reign of Elizabeth 1, young men seeking positions at court were encouraged to travel to continent to finish their education. Later, it became customary for education of gentleman to be completed by a ‘Grand Tour’ accompanied by a tutor and lasting for three or more years. While ostensibly educational, the pleasure seeking men travelled to enjoy life and culture of Paris, Venice or Florence. By the end of eighteenth century, the custom had become institutionalised in the gentry. Gradually pleasure travel displaced educational travel. The advent of Napoleonic wars inhibited travel for around 30 years and led to the decline of the custom of the Grand Tour.

The development of the spas

The spas grew in popularity in the seventeenth century in Britain and a little later in the European Continent as awareness about the therapeutic qualities of mineral water increased. Taking the cure in the spa rapidly acquired the nature of a status symbol. The resorts changed in character as pleasure became the motivation of visits. They became an important centre of social life for the high society.

In the nineteenth century they were gradually replaced by the seaside resort.

The sun, sand and sea resorts

The sea water became associated with health benefits. The earliest visitors therefore drank it and did not bathe in it. By the early eighteenth century, small fishing resorts sprung up in England for visitors who drank and immersed themselves in sea water. With the overcrowding of inland spas, the new sea side resorts grew in popularity. The introduction of steamboat services in 19th century introduced more resorts in the circuit. The seaside resort gradually became a social meeting point

 Role of the industrial revolution in promoting travel in the west

 The rapid urbanisation due to industrialisation led to mass immigration in cities. These people were lured into travel to escape their environment to places of natural beauty, often to the countryside they had come from change of routine from a physically and psychologically stressful jobs to a leisurely pace in countryside.

Highlights of travel in the nineteenth century 

·        Advent of railway initially catalysed business travel and later leisure travel. Gradually special trains were chartered to only take leisure travel to their destinations.

·        Package tours organised by entrepreneurs such as Thomas Cook.

·        The European countries indulged in a lot of business travel often to their colonies to buy raw material and sell finished goods.

·        The invention of photography acted as a status-enhancing tool and promoted overseas travel.

·        The formation of first hotel chains; pioneered by the railway companies who established great railway terminus hotels.

·        Seaside resorts began to develop different images as for day-trippers, elite, for gambling.

·        Other types of destinations-ski resorts, hill stations, mountaineering spots etc.

·        The technological development in steamships promoted travel between North America and Europe.

·        The Suez Canal opened direct sea routes to India and the Far East.

·        The cult of the guidebook followed the development of photography.



Tourism in the Twentieth Century


The First World War gave first hand experience of countries and aroused a sense of curiosity about international travel among less well off sector for the first time. The large scale of migration to the US meant a lot of travel across the Atlantic. Private motoring began to encourage domestic travel in Europe and the west.  The sea side resort became annual family holiday destination in Britain and increased in popularity in other countries of the west. Hotels proliferated in these destinations.

The birth of air travel and after

The wars increased interest in international travel. This interest was given the shape of mass tourism by the aviation industry. The surplus of aircraft and growth of private airlines aided the expansion of air travel. The aircraft had become comfortable, faster and steadily cheaper for overseas travel. With the introduction of Boeing 707 jet in 1958, the age of air travel for the masses had arrived. The beginning of chartered flights boosted the package tour market and led to the establishment of organised mass tourism. The Boeing 747, a 400 seat craft, brought the cost of travel down sharply. The seaside resorts in the Mediterranean, North Africa and the Caribbean were the initial hot spots of mass tourism.

A corresponding growth in hotel industry led to the establishment of world-wide chains. Tourism also began to diversify as people began to flock alternative destinations in the 70s. Nepal and India received a throng of tourists lured by Hare Krishna movement and transcendental meditation. The beginning of individual travel in a significant volume only occurred in the 80s. Air travel also led to a continuous growth in business travel especially with the emergence of the MNCs.

Hair Care Treatments Natural oils

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There is always a lot of fun to take care of your skin and hair, especially when trying your own recipes. Hair care you can try a number of easy and fast impressive recipes to make them soft, shiny and easy to manage. In fact, hot oil treatment is the best treat you can give your hair. Natural oils for hair care has always been a popular approach to the treatment of bad hair and treat or prevent hair loss. People in every country and civilization are studied in their native oils to find the most suitable energizer and refresher their hair and scalp.

It is a gift of nature and a long and tiring efforts of our ancestors that it is now a long list of natural oils, which are used throughout the world for hair tonic care.These condition your hair, nourishes the scalp and stimulate hair follicles. In this way, a good hot oil treatment to help promote hair growth and prevent hair loss. The bald areas are often rubbed oils to promote the idea of ​​dormant follicles to promote new hair growth.

There are a number of natural oils, which are often used to massage the skin oils and body all over the world. The most popular are;

  • Jojoba oil
  • Olive
  • almond
  • Coconut oil
  • sesame oil
  • Mustard Oil

These are the main carrier oils hot oil treatments or simple head massage. In addition, there are many other natural oils which are used in combination with one or more of the above-mentioned carrier oils positive effects. These are Castor oil promotes hair growth, Tara Mira oil (eruca sativa seed oil) for the treatment of dandruff, lice and other conditions of the scalp itchy and pumpkin seeds oil provides a cooling effect on the scalp and brain. In addition to these massage oils, certain essential oils have been found very useful for the treatment of bad hair and hair grow long. One study found that people use carrier oils mixed with some essential oils to massage the hair showed better hair growth than those using carrier oils alone. However, it took a long seven months to get significant results.

You can select the essential oils of the hair, or any underlying scalp condition.For more guidance to grow long hair, you can check Tips to grow long hair .

in most cultures, hair oils and tonics are traditionally rubbed over the scalp and the hair, even if a better alternative is to let the hair HOT oil processing, where the oil is heated prior to the application and end later wrapped in a hot towel to keep warm the whole system. Heat the oil to help penetrate deeper into the hair and condition the better. Later the hair with shampoo as usual.

Travel Support Socks – what are they and why are they necessary

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Travel Support Socks have served the savvy traveler in recent decades. Their ability to reduce foot pain for international flights is legendary. There are a variety of compressive strengths that range from 10 to 50 mm Hg (millimeters of mercury). In most countries, you can buy over the counter any compression socks which is 20 mmHg and below; anything over that amount requires a doctor’s prescription.

word to the wise: compression stockings may not be used for diabetics, because they considerably increase the blood circulation in the legs ..

Travel Support Socks actual value is seen on long international flights, and when you start to use them, you never go back. I recommend packing two or three pair on your next trip: one flight there, the other for any time at an altitude of over 3,000 meters, and the third for any strenuous activity which might cause soreness in the legs (eg hiking, biking or jogging).

If you bought without a prescription strength travel compression socks, you can use them throughout the day; if they did you get from your doctor, take them for proper use. It is worth repeating that diabetics should not use these socks.

Many travelers also use compression stockings while walking, especially at high altitudes. It is safe to use them throughout the day (if they are over the counter) and many people enjoy them, even if they do not move.

Right, enough of the health benefits, what about fashion? Do not sweat it; Compression stockings range from knee-length to ankle. Heck, they even sell pantyhose stockings style now!

Overview of Nairobi City, Kenya

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More than a century old, the capital city of Kenya is the only major city neighboring a national park (Nairobi National Park). Its cosmopolitan nature contributes to the illimitable energy and the numerous elements of diversity, from fashion and food to language and beliefs.

Popularly known as the city in the sun, Nairobi is perhaps the most interesting city to visit, live and work in Kenya given the great contrasts that exist. You will just as easily meet a woman with a basket on her head, a child on her back, pregnant and on her way to the market as you will spot another woman adorning sunglasses and high heeled shoes, talking on a Samsung galaxy SIII phone while driving a Range Rover. The same contrasts apply in all other aspects of social, cultural and economic settings.


Initially a salty and uninhibited swampland, Nairobi has come of age as a modern city.

  • The pastoralist Kenyan Maasai community knew the swampland as Enkare Nyrobi, meaning an area of cold water, and it is from this phrase that the name Nairobi was born.
  • During the Kenya railway construction under the British colonial rule, a camp known as Mile 327 was set up as a supply depot. The British used this camp as a provincial capital until 1905, when Nairobi was made the capital of British East Africa Protectorate.
  • In 1963, Nairobi became the capital city of independent Kenya.


Nairobi is the headquarters of Nairobi county and Nairobi district.

  • Until the promulgation of Kenya’s new constitution in 2010, the government was centralized in Nairobi, with all government ministries, arms of the government, major company headquarters and major institutions such as Referral hospitals, universities and national and international schools being located here.
  • All international bodies such as UNHCR, UNEP, UN Habitat etc., plus foreign missions and embassies are located in Nairobi.
  • The city has witnessed the worst political unrest from the 1981 coup de tour and Saba Saba political movement to numerous conflicts between President Moi Regime and social and political activists.

Money talk

  • Nairobi contributes more than 60% of Kenya’s Gross Domestic Product- making it a very crucial area in determining the country’s economic progress.
  • Presently, Nairobi Stock Exchange is the oldest and largest in Africa and graded 4th in regards to trading volumes (signifying the potential the city has investment-wise).

Demographics in Nairobi

With an area of 684km2, Nairobi has a population that is almost equally divided between the have and the have-nots, harboring as many wealthy people as urban poor. Collectively, however, rich or poor, the people of Nairobi are all Nairobians.

  • The most populous East African city, Nairobi has more than 3.375 people
  • In Africa, it is the 12th largest city.
  • Being a cosmopolitan and multicultural city, it has people from all the 47 tribes of Kenya, plus people from all African countries and representatives from around the world.
  • The main languages are Swahili and English
  • There is a growing, urban-language phenomenon in Nairobi popularly known as Sheng, which is made by marrying or bending Swahili words with other dialects.
  • You will find Catholics, Protestants, indigenous believers, Buddhists and even atheists here.

Real-estate demographics in Nairobi

Nairobi has the worst and best in property demographics.

  • While there is a growing middle-class real-estate market generating high property yields, there is simultaneously an increase in unsuitable dwelling units such as shanties and squatter settlements among the urban poor.
  • There is a huge housing deficit due to high rural to urban migration (though the deficit makes Nairobi an ideal place for investment)
  • With improvement in infrastructure, the value of properties and rental yields in various areas in Nairobi have doubled and even tripled in recent years
  • Nairobi has registered 20% growth in its high-end residential real-estate market, ranking the best globally.

Nairobi Weather

Situated at 10 17o S 360 46 o E and at 1,795 meters above sea level, Nairobi stands amid Mombasa and Kampala cities. To its west are the Ngong Hills and to the north and southeast towers Mt. Kenya and Mt. Kilimanjaro respectively.

  • Nairobi has a subtropical highland climate with an altitude that contributes to cool evenings and moderate temperatures.
  • December and March are the warmest and sunniest with average of 240 C.
  • Nairobi has two rainy reasons with moderate rainfall in April and July.
  • The city receives minimum of seven hours of sunshine daily throughout the year.

Venezuela fashion

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Fashion is an integral part of the Venezuelan population. The country has always attached great fashion sense and has seen many legendary beauties that beauty pageants. Venezuela’s fashion is known to be exotic and unique, so it is an important feature of the world’s fashion market.

All kinds of accessories and make-up articles that are required for maintenance of beauty are very sought after. the field of fashion goods in question is thus an increased demand to keep up.

Fashion does not limit itself clothes. It can also be integrated into a broader concept such as hairstyles, nail paints, footwear, and even make-up. Venezuelan people are well aware of how they dress and look, and therefore is carefully keep up to date with changing fashion trends. It is therefore no surprise that a lot of money spent on clothing. Designer clothes can even be found in some of the remotest parts of the country. This fashion sense is not only the general part of the young people in society, but also among adults.

When the beauty pageant which has such an important role in the life of Venezuelans, it is but natural that the houses of fashion designers and fashion are very important. Venezuela’s domestic fashion houses to deal with a lot of politics with official fashion house to competitors. Venezuela has produced top designers such as Mayela Camacho, Angel Sanchez, Durant & Diego and Jose Maria Almeida, who are names to reckon international haute couture arena.

The ever-increasing fashion scene has not only increased the fashion designers but also created a number of works relating to the fashion market. Tailors, makeup artists, hairstylists and many other jobs depend on the fashion market has sprung up in recent years. The modeling has also seen a parallel rise in the fashion market and Venezuelan models of some of the most sought after in today’s world.

Fashion Flashback

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Decades of history have been defined in many ways, be it movies, presidents, sports teams, etc., But one feature of a society that has represented and brought together generations of people since the beginning of time, is a fashion. USA, in particular, has seen a wide range of clothing trends in the last one hundred years and even today the fashion is developing rapidly, every decade couture out of the building one before. What makes each generation so unique? Well, it is for each to decide the right, but the way in which each decade of Vogue built away from each other is not a matter of taste, but only requires a retrospective look at the history of American fashion.

Decades dress

Each of the decade in fashion certainly are similarities, but it is also not a secret that the differences between each of them along with the continuous development of creativity and style which distinguishes them from the eyes of every generation. In the beginning of the ruling at the beginning of the development of fashion in the 1930s, the fashion in the United States has developed unique from other cultures where fads come and go along the way. While accessories such as corsets are all but evaporated modern society, chokers slowly creeping its way back to the daily style, a perfect example of how certain embellishments develops over time.

1930 and 40s

· Suits

· Coats

· Fedora

· Corsets

· Gloves 1950

(the beginning of change)

· Similar to the 1930s and 40s (the early 1950s)

· Knitwear

· Leather Jacket (1950)

· tight skirts (1950


· Mini dresses

· tighter pants

· Skipper Jackets

· Scarves

in the 1970s and ’80s

· Bell bottoms (70)

· Hippie style (70s)

· tights pants / tights (80)

· Chokers (80)

· Cosby sweaters (80)

· Mini Skirts (80)


· flannel shirts

· Ripped jeans

· Windbreaker

· Baggy shorts (hip-hop, post-1993)

· Slip dresses [[19459002


· low rise jeans

· Mini Skirts (1980 callbacks)

· Two-button suits

· Newsboy caps

· belly shirts

· Denim jacket


· Athletic Shorts

· Printed T-Shirts

· suits

· Chokers (Call back the 70 and 80; In recent)

· Tennis shoes

Important Why fashion?

The notion that every decade has been in some part of past is very much supported by this rundown of fashion over the years. 1920 style much influenced by the 1930s and 1940s, but after the end of the 1950s hit, let alone a conservative suit was born. Even in our present society fashion thrives based on the past, especially in the women’s attire. Mini Skirts are an obvious callback 1980 together Chokers, who are just starting in 2016 began to make their way back to the style of Midwestern culture. This dependence of each generation of style for the next decade to bloom makes a fashion flashback entirely appropriate and very informative topic.

Fashion, gorgeous Demand

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tuning in a separate segment of fashion is a common theme to choose what terrible scratch or not. Fashion could be more exciting, a great subject, and it is difficult to require a decision in that direction when it comes to exploring the surface of the main stream in many ways. However, of course, additional and additional niche bloggers are more likely to produce income. As a result, they tend to move dedicated to the public.

That is, not all fashion niches have the money to do the same. Some of the simpler surface unit is less complicated than getting a luxury niche on the fringe niche style used in the store. Do not give up!

It is a central and important role, because it is thought of as a way to express one’s self. Dresses or gowns and accessories that people use either a man or a woman, they understand the heap with different kinds of

· Religion

· Region

· Occupation

· attitudes

· families

this is why fashion is another ongoing replacement of the mainstream of any country.

passion for the rich

Many factors affect the development of style in perfect is now becoming a universal truth that fashion is only into the rich and famous people around the World, only they can fulfill the latest trends and features. But to throw a glance around us makes every fashion one way or another. Every class society is their fashion statement. They also apply to the religion.

The media and fashion

Media is also a positive role in the dissemination of the latest trends. Movies, TV shows, fashion shows and last but not the least, especially now a days social media have completely changed the trade. It has made a fashion features faster than ever. Fashion always changes and the limelight figures whether a design, cosmetics, wardrobe, accessories etc.

Fashion designer

In the history of thing Weaver was known as a skilled person, but today the artist is recognized for his / her creativity , and it concerns not only dresses but also other accessories as well. Because nowadays fashion is not only the dress, but also shoes, bags, makeup, jewelry, etc.

The way the dress is always a smooth one is the trend, and the second to push it to become. New Styles always pop up in films or programs for women and immediately copy them; Women always want to look like models look like.

Traditions and customs of

Although the fashion show deals with the obvious, but also manners, because the meant something much deeper than just fashion.

is also traditional styles that are very fast these days. Such as smoking, drinking, living in a joint family and parental care was once a trend in some societies, but now changing.

The Bible and the Cross Dominican Republic national flag

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For everyone who knows the song “Star Spangled Banner,” which is the national anthem of the United States, the star is not only an American flag. There are about 50 other countries that use the star as a symbol of national flags, because it is the most used flag symbol. However, only one country has never used the Bible as the symbolism of the flag, and that the country is the Dominican Republic.

colors of the flag of the Dominican Republic are blue, red and white. These colors are said to been taken out of the flag of Haiti, which once controlled the land. The colors are identified to stand for freedom, blood heroes and salvation, in that order. In addition, it is believed that the ancestor of Trinitarians – Juan Pablo Duarte – was the one who invented the color scheme by changing the position of the red and blue, and the addition of a large white cross symbolism of the confidence of the people.

Dominican Republic flag is also the hallmark of the middle. At the center of this emblem are a cross and a bible. This design could equally well be due to the fact that more than 90 percent of the population consists of the Dominican Roman Catholic.

In addition to this unique design, only the flag of the Dominican Republic has four inside the other flags. These four are the tiny Dominican Republic flags attached to spears, each surrounding the bible and the cross. These four mini-replicas are equivalent to the middle. If it had been, then there will be at least eight visible smaller miniature flags of two big four miniature replicas.

It is also believed that in addition to the flag, the Dominican Republic is also civil flag. This civil flag is the same as the miniature flags, which does not include the logo.

Why Dogs Whine and Scoot?

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It is common to see that the dogs whine and scoot, could certainly think of why they do so. Marina is a low full usually complain cry or sound. Dogs are not quite drunk when they whine but is rather an emotional fix, and to do this because they want to get the message across. It is just the same people shedding tears. Since dogs are sensitive creatures, they are the smallest signs of irritation and it’s not anything that makes them feel good.

causes the dog’s marina are sadness, hunger, asking for something, seeking attention or when they want to stern. Puppies can get sad older dogs without a family, particularly mama dog. They whine a sign of an emergency and the phone call, saying that they feel left alone or are in pain. It may be over a meal time because it whining. The dog whines like a child it it wants to ask you something. The dog whines because it wants to play its master and wants attention. Dogs who are toilet trained whine when they feel like pooping and they can not, because they are not in the right place.

Dogs scat, because the itching and the pain that comes from their anal sacs that are the essence of the scent glands that give off a foul-smelling liquid. Anal sacs leak every time the dog poops and they also spray liquid, when it gets scared. Spray anal sac is not toxic, but it just stinks because of the bacteria. All dogs do not smell the same, because it is a natural designed. Dogs pass out in order to get rid of that very itchy feeling and massaging butts across the floor.

want to stop dog whining, can do things like understand the tone of the marina, play hard to get, and to deny his development, and to teach it to hand and body language to set boundaries. If it is not small marina and is deeply rooted in the physical and mental pain, so the dog is taken to the vet.

One might think that your dog likes itchy feeling while scooting. In fact, scooting creates a very painful feeling of your dog and it gets to the point where the dog suffers from stern impaction. Scooting is the only way to see the dog to relieve himself. The dog may require professional care at this stage.

There is no need to see a veterinarian if the dog whining at the borders pathological. Fur and teeth a dog has nothing to do with whining if it is a horror film. If your dog scooting is not very serious, because in the case of grown dogs, it just has to be kept clean and treated well.

Explore Singapore, the Fascinating Mosaic of Cultural Diffusion!

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Singapore History:

It would not be an exaggeration to say that millions of global tourists, flocking to Singapore in search of fashion, shopping, glitz and glamour hardly know the proper history of this island city-state located on the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula. It is a wonder, that being the smallest country in Southeast Asia, Singapore happens to be the site of several ancient port cities and a possession of several empires in its “not-so-well-known” history.

To start with, when Singapore was colonized by the United Kingdom in the 19th century, it was nothing but a small Malay fishing village, the first records of its existence being made in the Chinese texts as early as the 3rd century. The island which then bore the javanese name “Temasek” and which happened to be an outpost of the Sumatran Srivijaya (an ancient Malay kingdom on the island of Sumatra) empire, gradually rose to become a significant trading city. However, throughout history, it had to bear the brunt of several political conflicts, which altered its destiny in course of time.

For example, Singapore was a part of the Sultanate of Johore, until it was set ablaze by portuguese troops in the Malay-Portugal wars in 1617. Again, in 1819, British East India Company made a treaty with the Sultan of Johore and established Singapore as a trading post and settlement. Later, seeing instant growth and immigration from various ethnic groups to Singapore, it was declared a crown colony by Britain in 1867. Its status was soon raised to that of an entrepot town by the ruling British empire due to its strategic location along the busy shipping routes connecting Europe to China.

Destiny had written a few more dramatic twists and turns for Singapore, “The Lion City”, as it also called. Further occupied by the Japanese Empire in World War II, it finally became part of the merger which formed the “Federation of Malaysia. Finally, after much tussels with the Federal government in Kuala Lumpur, the nation ultimately acquired independence in 1965.

However, what we see today as a tousists’ paradise was for many years, a fledgling nation struggling for self-sufficiency. Overburdened with mass unemployment, housing shortages and lack of land and natural resources such as petroleum, it was a sociopolitically volatile and economically undeveloped nation, relying massively on foreign investment and government-led industrialisation. The situation started changing after Lee Kuan Yew joined as prime minister in 1959. Within three decades, his administration curbed unemployment, raised the standard of living and developed Singapore’s economic infrastructure, thus elevating Singapore into a developing nation and subsequently to developed status.

In the recent years, the country has tackled various disasters, the major ones being the 1997 Asian financial crisis, the SARS outbreak in 2003, and terrorist threats posed by the Jemaah Islamiah (JI).

Singapore Economy:

It is really heartening to know that with 63 surrounding islets and with a total land area of 682 square km, the main island of Singapore, with its market-based economy, has grown into a thriving centre of commerce and industry in just 150 years. Successfully increasing its manufacturing base after being a ‘backward fishing village’ for many years, Singapore today thrives on various industries including shipping (Singapore today is the busiest port in the world with over 600 shipping lines sending super tankers, container ships and passenger liners), electronic components manufacturing and above all its booming travel/tourism industry. The island city state located at the tip of the Malay Peninsula that has suffered various political and economic onslaughts is now home to four million people, also boasting of one of the highest per capita gross domestic products in the world. The economic progress of Singapore as a nation can be an enriching example of how a mere “fishing village” and a British naval base for decades can be reborn as an important financial, commercial and educational center for South East Asia.

The credit for this resurrection goes to the PAP Government, who, assisted by a far-sighted Dutch economic adviser, realized the need of maintaining its colonial inheritance by attracting foreign capital from the developed world to establish export-oriented industries, while at the same time building up a modern service sector in Singapore based on banking and financial services. Needless to say, this economic strategy proved a phenomenal success, producing real growth that averaged 8.0% from 1960 to 1999. Thus, relying on foreign investment and expertise, while at the same time building up strong state enterprises, the provision of infrastructure, housing, transport and other basic services for the local population began increasing notably, and the old Singapore consisting of overcrowded and unsanitary slums was demolished strategically.

In recent years, the trade policies of the Singapore government which included commitment to free trade, active export promotion strategy, the ‘open arms’ policy towards multinationals and the support of trade liberalization have made Singapore an economically stable nation. In due course of time, Singapore has also developed an export trade that thrives on medium and high-technology electronics components. Such trade undoubtedly focuses on the key-strengths of Singapore, including “hi-tech” sectors as information technology and bio-technology.

Singapore Culture/Religion:

A cosmopolitan society with harmonious interaction among various different races, the inherent cultural diversity of the island is a source of one of the prime attractions of the nation. To be precise, this cultural diversity is the ultimate result of the diversity of the population, the intermingling of various ethnic groups and the amalagamation of Chinese, Malay and Indian immigrants. It is not unnatural for one to witness a Malay wedding taking place beside a Chinese wedding at a void deck, on the ground floor of a HDB apartment block in the Singapore city. Infrequent intermarriage between the Chinese and Indians are not unusual occurrences in Singapore. Besides indigenous Malay population, Singapore houses a majority of third generation Chinese as well as Indian and Arab immigrants. Thus, the diverse mix of races result in a significant degree of cultural diffusion with its unique combination of ethnic groups. Maybe that is one of the reasons why one would find very little culture that is specifically Singaporean. However, there exists a Eurasian community and a community of Peranakan or “Straits Chinese,” (a community of mixed Chinese and Malay descent).

Such a significant degree of cultural diffusion has given Singapore a rich mixture of diversity for its young age. One of the prime examples is the Singapore’s cuisine, a massive cultural attraction for tourists. Chinese, Indian, Malay, Indonesian, Italian, Peranakan, Spanish, French, Thai and even Fusion tops the menu. To speak of art and culture, Singapore is identified globally an emerging cultural centre for arts and culture, including theatre and music. Often called the “gateway between the East and West”, it has seen the emergence of several performing arts groups, especially in theatrical arts. A number of productions were staged successfully and several groups, including TheatreWorks, have performed overseas too.

As a cosmopolitian and multi-racial society, Singapore has also been the seat of major festivals from various ethnic groups associated with their respective religions. Those again, reflect the diversity of races residing there. While the Chinese are predominantly followers of Buddhism and Taoism, there are even Christians, Catholics and “free thinkers”: ones who don’t confirm to any religious faith. Thus, in today’s Singapore, religions tend to cross racial boundaries and even merge in unusual ways, combining a little of the mysteries of the older generation with the realistic world of today.

Singapore Travel/Tourism:

Celebrated and renowned worldwide as a delightful haven for tourists, Singapore has been able to earn major revenues courtesy its booming tourism industry. With the rise of tourism in Singapore, there is a stiff competition among hotels to run for the best slot. There are cheap airline travels to Singapore today, including apex fare, discounted airfares to Singapore and the like. A seat for the world’s most delectable seafood, awe-inspiring sea-beaches, impressive bird-parks and night safaris that account for wonderful wildlife adventure, Singapore today happens to be a little dynamo in Southeast Asia, embodying the finest of both East and West. Truly, the dynamic city rich in contrast and colour captures the hearts of millions of global tourists with its harmonious blend of culture, cuisine, arts and architecture and above all, its unbridled energy.

While on entering this cosmopolitan, multi-cultural city, one experiences the mélange of flavours from around the globe, the multicultural heritage of the nation is bound to sweep one off his feet as he discovers an ever-changing mosaic of fascinating contrasts. Thus, the amalgamation of ancient beliefs and contemporary culture, of rich legacies and sleek modern living makes Singapore an ever-youthful, ever-enchanting nation for tourists.

Tourist interests in Singapore: While tourism is continually infesting ChinaTown, a cultural section of Singapore, with shops and street vendors offering a glimpse into the days of old, the Asian Civilizations Museum (a diverse cultural museum) is there to exhibit antiques like a ninth-century Buddha and a Chinese snuff box. For lovers of art and architecture, the Thian Hock Keng Temple (Historic Taoist temple near Singapore’s waterfront) happens to be a “must watch” religious site. Another wonder is the unforgettable Singapore Art Museum, which, since its opening in 1996, offers an immense rotating collection of Singaporean and Malay sculpture and art. If you are a connoisseur of shopping and fine dining, there is Orchard Road, the ritzy shopping and dining area, often referred to as the “Park Avenue” of Singapore. For the lovers of spectacular underwater beauty, there is the Underwater World of Sentosa, showcasing the awe-inspiring beauty of a whole different world beneath the seas.

All said and done, the strategic location of Singapore, its cultural contrasts and diverse tourist attractions contribute to its success as a leading destination for both business and pleasure.