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6 Benefits of wearing jewelry

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silver jewelry

Silver has numerous health properties, which have been used at different times and cultures. It is a powerful disinfectant, which helps cold and flu prevention, healing and treatment of skin ulcers. Silver also helps the internal heat regulation and issued when the right amount and in a way, silver also applies to protection against harmful electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones and other electronics.

gold jewelry

Gold has been known to have a warm energy that leads to the soothing vibrations of the body to support the healing process. If a person took pure gold and put it in infection or sore spot, it was said to help improve the healing and control infection. It was considered that the gold held by the energy that brought the warm, soothing fluctuations in the body to support the healing process. Colors also affect health. Color is vibration, also some colors are healing. Some are imitating, and others reject the healing process.

diamond jewelry

Wearing a diamond to help business and professional. Then, wearing a diamond person is enriched and generous thoughts, and it eliminates the evil and scary thoughts makes his personality attractive and charming. Diamond native improve facial gloss and give him more confidence, which in turn opens up many ways to success. He / she will have more peace of mind and goodness of ideas after wearing the diamond. It also helps to improve and fight many diseases, such as diabetes, skin problems, the problem of private parts etc.

Handcrafted Jewelry

Whatever the reason for gifting green gifts are the way to go. Learning to make a purchase can be a little more durable to reduce consumption, minerals and other resources of fossil fuels. We do not need the machine, each piece hand made and really quite unique. Designers love the product, which is not found in a mass-produced items. These earrings are sustainable and ethical, which is the essence of ethics can be much more expensive than taking short cuts. On a smaller scale of production is always of better quality.

luxury jewelry

Every time you buy a luxury jewelry, you are proud to leave the shop with branded shopping bag sand something about spending a lot of money for yourself or a loved one felt good. You will feel different, you feel amazing, out of the world.

Artificial jewelry

The artificial & costume jewelry is worn beautification. This jewelry is cheap, affordable and available variety. This jewelry is popular among the young and the aged, it increased its stunning level. Now, all of us would like to use a different type of jewelry of different types of dresses.

Raincoats – Advantages and how to choose the best

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The wet season can not be avoided; tasks and must be carried out normally even on rainy days. Umbrellas are the most obvious destinations are during the season, as they help to keep dry as you go about doing what must be done. While the umbrellas come in very handy, there are some situations where it is much better to have a raincoat like an umbrella. Raincoats come in a wide range of sizes, lengths, colors and designs and therefore you can choose according to your personal style or preferences. But choosing a rain coat what are the advantages?

· raincoat makes the perfect choice, especially for children, who can not handle the umbrella well. They just slip it on and they are dry and need to be flexible.

· raincoats provide a lot of comfort for those who need to walk in the rain, but have their hands full. If the bags to carry and can not hand hold up the umbrella, raincoat offers this convenience. They also prove useful for bicycle riders too.

· Most rain jackets are lightweight and come with bags, so that you can collapse them and pack them easy to transport and storage. Some are so small packed that you can slip them in your pocket or in your purse you carry them around easily. The same can not be said of umbrellas, especially the larger that you can hide in your handbag when not in use, and you have to stick them everywhere you go.

· You can find rain jackets that are designed to keep you warm in addition to keep you dry. This is something that would be difficult to enjoy when there is only an umbrella. You can select a raincoat feel best serves your needs during the cold and rainy season.

Choosing the best

With so many options when it comes to raincoats, you would have to do your homework end up being the best. One of the most important things to think about is the style rain jacket. The options include active wear, ponchos, anoraks and trench coats. Each has its own features and compatibility, and when you look at each of you should be able to make a good decision.

The breathability and waterproofing properties raincoat are also very important aspects to choosing the best one for you. Normally, rain jackets used in the manufacture of fabrics are what determines these features, and you should think through before you make your choice. Laminated fabrics are not only breathable but also durable compared to coated them.

Raincoat comfort should also be taken into account when buying. Two-way zipper, mesh ventilation, mesh lining under the armpits and the back or inside pockets, sewing and measurements are some of the features that determine the comfort of a raincoat. Choose a proper fit, perfect length and features that enhance comfort when wearing.

Top Ways to Turn Your Small Business Into a Business Empire

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Top ways to turn your small business into a profitable business empire.

Small businesses are those businesses which may be started with small capital investments. There are millions of people who are running small or home businesses. Nearly 70% of newly started small businesses fail due to lack of capital, competitions and various other reasons.

Before we look into the reason for success or failure of small businesses let us look into some of the most successful businesses that were started with some powerful and innovative ideas. if you start any small business in a routine way then you may earn just hand to mouth. To take your small business on top you must provide something new and innovative.

How some of the ordinary people turned their small business into a global business empire:

(1). King c. Gillette: A traveling salesman found that his straight razor had dulled and it has become impossible for him to make a close shave. Many time his dulled razor use to cut his skin as there was no sharpness left so he started thinking about new safety razor. A new idea about making a twin blade razor was born in which disposable blade may be put and replaced. Even though many engineers rejected the idea but he continued to experiment and today Gillette have become a billion dollar company. He introduced a low cost, disposable blade that can make close and safe shave.

Summary: He faced a problem and wanted to find an innovative solution to that problem. Although he was a salesman with limited resources but he knew that idea can be turned into money. He realized that if his dreams can be realized then he can turn it into a profitable business empire. This is the power of innovative idea. An innovative idea can make unlimited wealth. Any small business can be turned into a big business empire if you try to introduce some new concepts.

(2). Tory Kumon: A high school mathematics teacher in Japan, Toru Kumon, became concerned because his second grade school son was bringing home poor grades in mathematics. Encouraged by his wife to find a better way to teach his son, Kumon began to examine the textbooks and exercises being used. Kumon felt that there were better ways and looked for a different method for his son. The Kumons worked together and while his wife supervised the home work of their son, Toru Kumon re-wrote the exercises and drills for his son, giving him a slightly more difficult set of problems every day. By the time the son had finished eighth grade, he was working through calculus problems, easily and correctly, and could handle work found on university entrance examinations.

Toru Kumon realized that if his son was having this problem, there would be other children in the same situation. Kumon then decided to take his methods to other parents whose children were having these same challenges. He did this by opening Kumon Learning Centers throughout Japan. Kumon was not without his critics, though. Members of the educational establishment were against him – primarily because it was not their idea. They could not refute the fact that the Kumon system works. Today kumon have more then 26000 centers in 46 countries. This is the power of a small and powerful idea!

Summary: Kumon saw a problem – poor academic performance and defined it as an opportunity – opportunity to create a learning system that would resolve the poor academic performance problems. After working with his son and finding something that work, he found he could provide this service to other parents that were having the same challenges. At the same time, he could create income for himself. He provided something of value and a lower cost than many of the alternatives.

(3)Amancio ortega: Amancio Ortega was born in the year 1936 in Spain. His father was a railway worker and his mother worked as a maid to support the family. Due to the financial problems that his family was facing, at the tender age of 13 he started working as a delivery boy at a shirt makers shop. Thereafter he worked for a lot of stores and tailors and closely studied as to how the products and cost of the products changed as they traveled from the manufacturer to the consumer. As a result of this study he became focused on the importance of getting the products directly to the consumer by eliminating the middleman. During his experience of working as a manager of a local clothing shop he realized that only rich people were able to afford high fashion clothes because of the high prices they came with. Having observed this, he was determined to manufacture high fashion clothes that were low priced and accessible to all. He continued to gain experience and knowledge while working until 1963 when he started his own company with just $25. He started designing and making fine bathrobes and started selling it to customers and also started supplying them at various stores. Later on with the profits that he earned with the help of this business he started his own factory. Today his personal worth is more then $20 billions. This is the power of innovative ideas on which a small business is developed into a business empire.

Let us try to shed some light on the innovative ideas that he used to turn his small business into a fortune.

(A)He realized that the high end fashion clothes were only accessible to rich people as only they could afford it. A major portion of the price margin was consumed by the middlemen. To eliminate this problem, he started creating high end fashion clothes or rather look-alike of top fashionable clothes for the masses at affordable prices by eliminating the middlemen. In this way then number of people who bought his clothes increased and in turn he became very popular.

Benefits to the consumer: Due to Amancio’s innovative idea, the middle class people who could not normally afford costly and latest designs were able to avail these fashionable clothes at reasonable rates.

(B)Direct Retailing: Amancio realized that middle men like wholesalers, semi wholesalers were deciding the final selling prices of these clothes and thus they ended up being very costly. Thus he opened his own string of stores called ZARA where he passed the margin that was being taken by the middle men to the customers.

(C)When Amancio started his business; the industry standard was to introduce new fashion twice a year. Thus people had to wait for a very long span of time and would visit the shop only twice a year to buy the new fashionable clothes. Amancio introduced the unique concept of instant fashion by introducing latest designs and new fashions within 2-3 weeks. This in turn pulled people to his shops many times in a month. This also helped customers by bringing new designs to them and the shopkeepers were benefited too because of the constant visits by the customers.

(D)Modifying unsold designs: Some designs do not sell as much as the popular ones. What Amancio did was to change and alter the failed designs so that they would be sold. He did this by putting up new patterns and accessories on the old designs.

(E)Advantage of information technology: To know more about what type of designs sell and what type does not sell and also to know more about the unsold stocks, Amancio took advantage of information technology that allowed him to monitor the unsold inventories. This also helped him realize the actual taste of the customers.

Summary: Amancio ortega started a small business with just $25 but today his personal net worth is more then $20 billions. At the time he started his business there were already thousands of businessmen, designers, and established fashion houses but only he was able to make it to the top because he introduced something new in his small business and rest is history.

Most of the self made billionaires possessed or developed the following qualities to become rich and these are necessary for success in any business: They started with a small business and developed into a business empire. Some of the qualities required to develop a small business into a business empires are as follow.

1. A burning desire to become rich

2. A fixed goal and a sound business plan to materialize it.

3. The faith and persistence in your efforts and making the tough decision of never to give up even after many failures.

4. A practical plan of action

5. Developing the ability to organize information and creating something new out of it.

6. The ability to innovate

7. Working towards developing new ideas and innovations instead of worrying about the investments required for the business.

8. Compensating for lack of education with self education and mastering all specialized knowledge with practical experience.

9. Finding ways to make money without any capital

10. Trying to create something new that would provide additional benefits to the customers or to the industry.

11. They are never ashamed to take up even a small job so as to learn in and outs of the business and to sharpen their skills in the field.

12. The ability to turn even $1 into thousands.

13. Creates opportunities for themselves instead of waiting for them to happen

14. They mastered all the specialized knowledge that is required for the selected business and tried to learn everything that is necessary to make a fortune

15. Developed their ability to create the best.

16. Creates and develops only such things that have a demand or that will be sold for sure.

17. They are never afraid of competition and beat it with the help of better products.

18. They always think and plan 10-20 years ahead of the time

19. They develop a profitable idea to attract investment.

20. They start initially with a knowledge based or skill based business.

21. They learn how to think like a customer and constantly try to find ways to provide goods and services at a low cost and with high value.

Summary: whatever small businesses you want to start first of all make a research about the ideas that are being used by top and successful companies. Now try to find some loop holes or better solutions and try to introduce them in your small business.

Culture Shock – A Westerner Living in China

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I first came to China in 2005. I flew in via Hong Kong to Shenzhen and was completely blown away by this city. I didn’t know quite what to expect but it certainly exceeded any expectations I might have had. Thirty years ago Shenzhen was just a small fishing village across the river from Hong Kong but with an idea of creating a model city to rival Hong Kong, the then leader Deng Xiaoping set out his vision for this super-city. In my opinion Shenzhen is an amazing modern city with futurist tall buildings, well designed family friendly apartment blocks, wide tree lined avenues, lush vegetation, relaxing parks and a vibrant economy to compete with any western city. Wow! I thought – this is communist China!

It wasn’t however until 2007 when I came to live in Zunyi, a ‘small’ city in Guizhou province did I come to discover the real China. The fact is you never really know a country until you live there and for me, it was a real culture shock! Make no mistake about it, life in the west is so very different from life in China.

Population: As we all know, China has a huge population – 1.3 billion people, a figure which is difficult to comprehend. Zunyi is considered to be a small city in China but has a population bigger than England’s second biggest city – Birmingham. And because everyone lives in apartment blocks, the inhabitants are more crammed in than English cities. Only the mountain right in the middle of the Zunyi creates a refuge from the noise and busyness of the city but most cities here don’t have mountains in the middle of them. The bigger cities like Shanghai, Beijing and Chongqing seem to places of endless habitation but fortunately the city planners have thought about this and there are always either beautiful parks or historic sites to escape too. Because of the size of the population it is difficult to get away from people in China; even the countryside where agriculture is labour intensive, it can be difficult to be totally alone. Having said that, I have been fortunate enough to be taken to some stunning countryside away from the city where all you can hear is the birdsong and only occasionally meet another person.

Cultural differences: It is quite difficult to define Chinese culture so simply because like western culture, it is changing. There is the old traditional culture which underpins society and there is the new modern culture imported from the West, Japan and Korea. Although China has one of the oldest civilisations, it is actually one of the newest countries. Sixty years ago was the Cultural Revolution lead by Mao Zedong which swept away thousands of years of dynastic rule by emperors and freed the great majority of people from impoverished living. China reinvented itself in 1949 and became a truly communist country but that was sixty years ago and there can be no comparison between now and then. Only long held traditions and values remain and some of these are under threat from modern day life. Today young people in the cities have high aspirations and want all the modern day fashion and technology they can get their hands on.

So, on the surface in the modern cities all can appear the same as in the West. The men and women wear the same stylish clothes, the girls wear skimpy clothes to reveal their figure and the boys wear fashion to imitate their pop idols; business people drive expensive saloons and 4 x 4s (often black) and high-heeled ladies shop in expensive boutiques. Look up at the skyline and you’ll see amazing high rise blocks of futuristic design which equal or even better western skylines. Under the modern exterior however, most people are very traditional and it is best to be aware of these traditional values if you want to live, work and do business here.

Family: In China, the family unit is a very strong one and there is generally great respect afforded by children to parents and to grandparents. That doesn’t mean that everything is perfect in family life but family is the refuge and the security here. When people need help they turn to family, if they need financial backing for a business venture they turn to family and if they need advice, they do the same. It is not only in life that respect is given but in death also. Every year in April there is ceremony called Tomb Sweeping Day and on this day families will visit the graves of their relatives to clean the graves, say prayers and burn paper money for the dead. This creates a strong connection between the living and their ancestors, and gives an underlying message to the living that they won’t be forgotten, even in death.

Today in China there is still the one child policy, although this does not apply in the countryside where there is a need for labour. This means that the family is small and often the children are cosseted. Most often both parents will go out to work and therefore the grandparents are frequently called upon to assist with the child’s care. Sometimes the child will live with the grandparents if the father and mother have to work away. Many people have to work in other cities and commuting is impossible and so can only visit their family once or twice a year. This makes festivals like Spring Festival so important to the family. At Spring Festival most workers get a week’s holiday and this is a big time for family reunions. This can be the only real holiday a lot of people get in the year.

Marriage: In China, marriage is still considered the only way for a couple to live together and there is strong pressure for young people to get married before they are 30, especially for the girls. The idea of a woman seeking a career above marriage is almost unheard of and equally of not wanting children. If a woman doesn’t want children, she will be considered to be not normal. A lot of young people have an idealised view of marriage despite the divorce rate being high here; they always believe they can make the successful marriage. What’s more there is still a notion for a lot of young women that they should be virgins when they get married, although this idea doesn’t really hold in the big cities. Also, a lot of men want to marry virgins, especially in the countryside where old attitudes prevail and it is sometimes expected for a girl to produce a certificate from a doctor to say she is a virgin.

Youth culture: Young people now wear the latest fashion from Japan, Korea and the West but this can give the wrong impression as to their attitudes about love and sex which are still old fashioned. They may look like any young person from a permissive western society but they don’t sleep around, they don’t expect to have sex by the time they are eighteen and they wouldn’t dare to bring a baby into the world without being married; what’s more they’re not into drugs either. High school students are discouraged by their parents from forming relationships until after they have graduated at the age of eighteen. Young girls may look stunning in the tight clothes and ultra short skirts but unlike many of their western counterparts, they are not party animals and don’t go out on the town to get drunk; in fact a lot of them don’t even drink alcohol at all and they certainly don’t expect to be chatted up by strangers. Yes, attitudes are more westernised in the big cities but there is still a strong recognition of what it is to be Chinese and young people are very proud of this. The Chinese people are conservative by nature and this should be understood by western visitors, so as not to offend.

Work: There is a very strong work ethic in China and people are not afraid of work here. The fact is that if people don’t work, they get no support from the state, not that they would expect it. Most people will do any work to earn a little money and don’t feel a sense of shame if they have menial jobs. It is quite quite humbling to see the types of work that people will do to earn a small amount of money. People here take a great sense of pride in having a secure job and will do nothing to threaten that security. This can mean that some employees are exploited by their bosses who know their staff will not cause trouble if there are difficulties at work. Another fact is that there are too many workers for the jobs available and so people are always grateful to have work. Chinese people will work long hours doing the most tedious jobs without complaint but of course many do aspire to better themselves but competition for jobs is great and the greatest fear for a student at school or college is not to have a job after graduation. This is why students are prepared to begin their school day at 7 a.m. and finish their last class at 9.30 p.m. and will go to school on Saturday and then attend private classes on Sunday with little complaint. They get tired and worried about the never ending round of exams but they do it because they want to work and not just want work but want to have a good job. Many students today aspire to being rich and why shouldn’t they, when their country is heading towards becoming the strongest economy in the world.

National pride: Chinese people are immensely proud of their country and their country’s achievements and this was strongly reinforced during the 2008 Olympic Games and the 2008 earthquake in Sichuan when the entire country rallied to help the stricken area and its people. China is made up of many ethnic groups, each with their own traditions and dialect but is united under one flag and one leadership. There has been descent in some parts but on the whole, the country is as one. The Chinese people also have very strong feelings about Tibet and also Taiwan and I suggest that until you research the history about these areas, you don’t get into a debate with Chinese people about them. There has been a lot of misinformation spread around about these, especially about Tibet by people who don’t fully understand the history of China. It is a good idea to read some good books about China’s history before coming to live in China; it will help you understand its people.

Manners: This may be one of the most difficult things to come to terms with in China because the Chinese people don’t adopt the same manners as we are used to in the UK or US. It has sometimes been my opinion that Chinese people don’t have manners at all but this is an over generalisation. Chinese people don’t like to queue or wait to be served; if you are in shop being served, expect someone to barge in front of you but of course you don’t have to put up with it. You have to learn to be quick and in some cases assert your ground. Also if you are in conversation with another, don’t expect people to wait until you have finished your conversation before another will charge right on in to say their point. This will be much more so in the smaller cities where people have not become so educated and not so ‘westernised.’

The thing to remember is that this is their way and there is little point in trying to change it because you won’t. I believe however that you should maintain your own manners and civility but not try to thrust your beliefs onto others. When I first came to China, I found that no one ever smiled at me and no shop keeper ever thanked me for my custom. I thought the Chinese to be a very cold race but once I got to know people, I found them to be very warm, friendly and generous, even if they have little to give. My suggestion is that you smile first and let people know that you are friendly toward them, and that way they will soon begin to respond to you. The Chinese people in general are shy people and this explains a lot of their reticence to smile.

Big city, small city: If you live in one of the major cities like Shanghai or Beijing you will pretty much be invisible as you go about your daily business but if you choose to live in a smaller city or even a town, you will be source of much interest. In Zunyi I am one of a dozen or so foreigners and so I am often starred at and always in demand by students to talk English with me. I get lots of invites out to have a meal or go on trips; it certainly compensates for the isolation I have often felt. And while on the subject of being invited out for a meal. It is customary for the person doing the inviting to do the paying, so don’t be concerned about others paying for you but out of politeness, you should return the invite and pay for them.

There times when you can feel completely frustrated by living in China, with the constant noise and smells, the apparent rudeness and disregard for others; it can really get to you but you have to accept it and try not to get angry. Chinese are far more tolerant in this respect; they have to be more tolerant of each other because there are so many people living in such close proximity to each other here. They are not fazed by air-horns, motorcycles on the footpath and people pushing in or cars cutting them up. It is important to remember that you are the foreigner here and this is not your country.

If you want to come and work here, I suggest you embrace the differences and don’t try to resist them. I have gained so many friends here in China and it will be a very sad day when I finally return to the U.K. At times China has driven me mad with frustration but on the other hand, China has given me so much.

Wide Area Network (WAN)

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Types and Characteristics of WANs

What is a WAN?

There are two prevailing definitions of a Wide Area Network (WAN). The book definition of a WAN is a network that spans large geographical locations, usually to interconnect multiple Local Area Networks (LANs). The practical definition of a WAN is a network that traverses a public network or commercial carrier, using one of several WAN technologies

What are its Main Components?

The main components for a WAN are routers, switches and modems. These components are described below in the hardware section.

CPE – Devices on the subscriber premises are called customer premises equipment (CPE).

The subscriber owns the CPE or leases the CPE from the service provider. A copper or fiber cable connects the CPE to the service provider’s nearest exchange or central office. This cabling is often called the local loop, or “last-mile”.

DTE/DCE – Devices that put data on the local loop are called data circuit-terminating equipment, or data communications equipment (DCE). The customer devices that pass the data to the DCE are called data terminal equipment (DTE). The DCE primarily provides an interface for the DTE into the communication link on the WAN cloud.


In a WAN you will need various types of hardware components for it to function. The typical items of hardware that you will need in a WAN are:

Router – An electronic device that connects a local area network (LAN) to a wide area network (WAN) and handles the task of routing messages between the two networks. Operates at layer 3, and makes decisions using IP addresses.

Switch – A switch is a network device that selects a path or circuit for sending a unit of data to its next destination. Operates at layer 2, and uses MAC addresses to send data to correct destination.

Modem – Short for modulator/demodulator, a modem enables a computer to communicate with other computers over telephone lines. Operates at layer 1, where signals are converted from digital to analogue and vice versa for transmission and receiving.

Wan Standards

WANs operate within the OSI model using layer 1 and layer 2 levels. The data link layer and the physical layer. The physical layer protocols describe how to provide electrical, mechanical and functional connections to the services provided by the ISP. The data link layer defines how data is encapsulated for transmission to remote sites.


Encapsulation is the wrapping of data in a particular protocol header. Remember that WANs operate at the physical layer and the data link layer of the osi model and that higher layer protocols such as IP are encapsulated when sent across the WAN link. Serial interfaces support a wide range of WAN encapsulation types, which must be manually specified. These types include SDLC, PPP, Frame delay etc. Regardless of WAN encapsulation used it must be identical on both sides of the point to point link.

Packet and Circuit Switching

Circuit switching and packet switching are both used in high-capacity networks.

The majority of switched networks today get data across the network

through packet switching.

Circuit-switching is more reliable than packet-switching. Circuit switching is old and expensive, packet switching is more modern.

General Routing Issues

What is a Routing Protocol?

A routing protocol is a protocol that specifies how routers communicate and exchange information on a network. Each router has prior knowledge of its immediate neighbours and knows the structure of the network topology. The routers know this because the routing protocol shares this information.


RIP (Routing Information Protocol) was one of the most commonly uses protocols on internal networks. Routers use RIP to dynamically adapt changes to the network connections and communicate information about which networks routers can reach and the distance between them. RIP is sometimes said to stand for Rest in Pieces in reference to the reputation that RIP has for breaking unexpectedly and rendering a network unable to function.

Routing Algorithms

Distance Vector

This type of routing protocol requires that each router simply inform its neighbours of its routing table. The distance vector protocol is also known as the bellman-ford algorithm.

Link State

This type of routing protocol requires that each router maintain a partial map of the network. The link state algorithm is also know as Dijkstra’s algorithm.


IGRP is a type of distance vector routing protocol invented by cisco used to exchange routing data in a autonomous system. Distance vector protocols measure distances and compare routes. Routers that use distance vector must send all or a portion of their routing table in a routing update message at regular intervals to each neighbour router.

Addressing and Routing

What does routing mean?

Routing is the process of deciding how to move packets from one network to another.

The directions also known as routes can be learned by a router using a routing protocol then the information is passed from router to router along the route of the destination.

IP Address’s

Every machine connected to the internet is assigned an IP address. An example of an IP address would be IP addresses are displayed in decimal format to make it easier for humans to understand but computers communicate in binary form. The four numbers that separate an IP address are called Octets. Each position consists of eight bits. When added to together you get 32 bit address. The purpose of each octet in an IP address is to create classes of IP addresses that can be assigned within a network. There are three main classes that we deal with Class A, B and C. The octets of an IP address are split into two parts Network and Host. In a class A address the first octet is the network portion, this determines which network the computer belongs to, the last octets of the address are the hosts that belong to the network.

Sub netting

Sub netting allows you to create multiple networks within a class A, B or C address. The subnet address is the address used by your LAN. In a Class C network address you would have a subnet mask of A subnet mask identifies which portion is network and which is host. For example the first octet three octets are the Network address and the last octet being the host(Workstation). It is important to subnet a network because gateways need to forward packets to other LANS. By giving each NIC on the gateway an IP address and a Subnet mask it allows the gateways to route packets from LAN to LAN. Once the packet arrives at its destination, the gateway then uses the bits of the subnet portion of the IP address to decide which LAN to send the packets.

Circuit Switched Leased Lines

A circuit switched network is one that establishes a dedicated circuit (or channel) between nodes and terminals before the users may communicate. Here are some terminologies associated with a Circuit switched network.

Frame relay is a telecommunication service designed for cost-efficient data transmission between local area networks (LANs)

Basic rate interference is a service used by small business for internet connectivity. An ISDN BRI provides two 64 Kbps digital channels to the user.

Primary rate interface (PRI) is a telecommunications standard for carrying voice and data transmissions between two locations

All data and voice channels are ISDN and operate at 64kbit/s

Packet Switching – _Toc80455261

Packet switching refers to protocols in which messages are broken up into small packets before they are sent. Each packet is then transmitted over the Internet. At the destination the packets are reassembled into the original message. Packet switching main difference from Circuit Switching is that that the communication lines are not dedicated to passing messages from the source to the destination. In Packet Switching, different messages can use the same network resources within the same time period.

Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a cell relay, packet switching network and protocolwhich encodes data into small fixed-sized cells.

ISDN is used to carry voice, data, video and images across a telephone network. ISDN stands for integrated services Digital Network. Isdn also provides users with a 128kbps bandwidth. This is done through frame relay. Frame relay complements and provides a service between ISDN, which offers bandwidth at 128 Kbps and Asynchronous Transfer Mode which operates in somewhat similar fashion to frame relay but at speeds from 155.520 Mbps or 622.080 Mbps. Frame relay is based on the older X.25 packet switching technology and is used to transmit analogue signals such as telephone conversations.

PSDN stands for packet switched data network and is a data communication network. Packet switched networks do not establish a physical communication signal like the public telephone does (circuit switched network) Packets are sent on a fixed length basis and assigned with a source and a destination address. The packets then rely on the routers to read the address and route the packets through the network.

Mobile and Broadband Services

Digital Subscriber line(DSL) is mainly used to bring high bandwidth connections to homes and small business’s over a copper wire telephone line. This is can only be achieved if you stay within the range of the telephone exchange. DSL offers download rates of up to 6mbps allowing continuous transmission of video, audio and 3D effects. DSL is set to replace ISDN and compete with the cable modem in providing multimedia to homes. DSL works by connecting your telephone line to the telephone office over copper wires that are twisted together.

Asymmetric Digital Subscribers Line is most commonly used for home users. It provides a high download speed but a lower upload speed. Using ADSL, up to 6.1 megabits per second of data can be sent downstream and up to 640 Kbps upstream.

Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line is a digital subcriber line which runs over one pair of copper wires. The main difference between ADSL and SDSL is the difference in upload and download speeds. SDSL allows the same upstream data rate and downstream data rate as ADSL upstream can be very slow.


HDSL High bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line, one of the earliest forms of DSL, is used for wideband digital transmission within a corporate site and between the telephone company and a customer. The main characteristic of HDSL is that provides equal bandwidth in both directions.

IDSL is a system in which data is transmitted at 128 Kbps on a regular copper telephone line from a user to a destination using digital transmission.

The Local Loop enables operators to connect directly to the consumer via copper local loops and then add their own equipment to offer broadband and other services. This process involves operators accessing local exchange buildings to connect to a network of copper lines which connect them to homes and businesses. BT is an Example of a Local Exchange. The local loop connecting the telephone exchange to most subscribers is capable of carrying frequencies well beyond the 3.4 kHz upper limit.

Benefits of using DSL

DSL can provide virtually instantaneous transmission of voice, data and video over ordinary copper phone lines. A DSL connection can eliminate delays when waiting to download information and graphics from the Internet. It provides users with a cost effective high speed Internet connection. Another benefit is that a DSL connection is always on-line (like a LAN connection) with no waiting time for dialling or connecting.

There are now more than 10 million broadband connections in the UK. By December 2005 there were 9.792 million broadband connections in the UK and the average broadband take up rate during the three months to December was more than 70,000 per week.

Top 10 Online Shopping Sites for Babies & Toddlers

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Well, whenever the idea of online shopping crops up in our mind, we get to see and also find a wide range of sites that allow for online shopping. You can get your desired products and that too at extremely reasonable prices when you are shopping online. There are a huge number of shopping websites where you can buy a wide range of things for men, women and also children.

Products that you need for your kids

The products that you may need for your babies depend from your baby to another baby. After all, all kids are not same and the main thing to be kept in mind while buying your kid’s products is that their requirements may also vary. Here are a list of such products that you may need for your baby.

1. Baby clothes

2. Diapers

3. Blankets

4. Toys & games

5. Video monitors

6. Footwear

7. Books

8. Feeding products

9. Potty training

These are a few items that are extremely essential for your kids. Now let us have a glance at the list of 10 websites that you can opt for if you want to buy products for your kids. These are as follows:

1. First cry:

To speak of First Cry, it needs to be said at the very beginning that it is one of the biggest stores that allows you to buy products of kids and toddlers. First cry boasts of having a huge number of 70000 products that are basically Indian as well as International brands. Some of the things available on First cry for toddlers include Footwear, Apparel, Baby toys, Books, Health Care, CDs, Feeding products, Gifts, maternity etc.

Now to speak of the brands those are available on First Cry, it can be said that there are a huge number of options you can choose from. Some of the brands include Gini and Jony, Funskool, Pampers, Simba, Camel, Sun Baby, Angry Bird, Baby Hug, Farlin, Ben10, Mattel, Pigeon, Fisher Price, Barbie, Hot wheels, Gerber, Nataraj, Disney, and so on.

2. Babyoye:

Babyoye is a famous website for online shopping. You can buy products for toddlers and kids. This website offers you a wide range of products like Footwear, Apparels, Feeding & Nursing, Baby Gear, Nursery, Toys, Books & CDs, Bath & Health, Stationary Maternity, School and Accessories. All these products are of excellent quality and belong to either top Indian or International brands which include Chicco, Sunbaby, Happy Dino, Mothertouch, Hauck, Fisher Price, Goodbaby, Funskool, Little Tikes, Hot Wheels, Simba, Disney, and so on.

3. Hopscotch:

Hopscotch is another leading online store for shopping online where you can buy a variety of products for kids as well as toddlers. This online website boasts of having a huge number of products that which belong to Indian as well as International brands. Some of the things available on First cry for toddlers include Footwear, Feeding products, Apparel, Accessories, Baby toys, Health Care, Gifts, Personal Care, Books, Home & Kitchen, maternity etc.

Some of the brands available here on this website include Aquaphor, Beetle & Bottle, Wallcandy Arts, WaterWipes, Funkrafts, Ribbon, Magic Moms, Lollipop Lane, Hot Wheels, Ben Benny, Calvin Klein, Funskool, Angry Birds, Chooze Shoes, Green Toys and so on.

4. MyBabyCart:

To speak of MyBabyCart, it needs to be said at the very beginning that it is one of the biggest stores that allows you to buy products of kids and toddlers.

This website is a leading online shopping site for buying products for toddlers and kids. Here you can get offers products like Fashion Accessories, Toys & Gears, Clothes, & Party Picks, Diapering & Bath, Décor & Bedding, Gifts Feeding & Nursery, Health & Safety Needs, Books & CDs etc. These products belong to the best brands, be it Indian or International. The brands that you can find here include Morph, Nine Maternity, Be U Bags, Fisher Price, SunBaby, Little Wanderers, Little Feet, Bum Chum, Chicco, Molto, Tiny Care, Chicco, UVTI Clothing, Love Baby and so many others.

5. Redlily:

From RedLily you can do all of the shopping you want to do for your kids and toddlers. Some of the wide range products that are available her include The products offered include games, feeding & nursing, nursery, electronic gadgets and toys, soft toys, balloons & accessories, costumes and so on.

6. Shopclues:

Well, to speak of this famous site it only needs to be said that this is perhaps one of the most popular website among all of us. This online shopping website has the headquarters at Gurgaon, but it was generally founded in the Silicon Valley in California. On shopclues you can always get your desired products and that tool at reasonable prices. Here you can even get the best products for your kids and toddlers including games, feeding & nursing, nursery, electronic gadgets and toys, soft toys, balloons & accessories, costumes and so on. The best thing is that there are also certain offers on various products.

7. Crazy8:

Crazy8 is a new part of TheGymboree Corporation. From here you can always buy products for your kids, which include Feeding & Nursery, Personal Care, Toys, Furnishing, Electronics, Party Supplies, Gifts, Diapering, Stationary, potty training, etc.

8. Snapdeal:

Snapdeal is yet an excellent website that allows you to buy various types of goods and products online. The best thing is that here you can get access to the products that you can buy at very low costs. This is a great site to buy products for your babies and kids. Here you can always get bath and skin care, mom and maternity, baby bedding, baby gear & safety, feeding & nursing, diapers etc. Chicco, Avent, Mamy Pokopants, Pigeon, Mee Mee etc are some of the famous brands that are available here on this shopping website.

9. Amazon:

Well, Amazon is beyond doubt an excellent website for buying various types of products online. And when it comes to buying products for your baby or toddler, you can safely rely on Amazon. Here on this famous website you can get bedding, kids’ furniture, potty training, strollers, prams, carriers, baby monitors, nursery décor, feeding, baby care and also activity products and that too of excellent quality. Some of the featured brands that you can opt for include Libero, Avent, Luvlap, Fisher-Price, Pampers, Johnson’s baby, Himalaya, Nubby and so on.

10. LittleMe:

LittleMe is another excellent website that you can always opt for in order to buy products for your kids and toddlers. Some of the products include Fashion Accessories, Toys & Gears, Clothes, & Party Picks, Diapering & Bath, Décor & Bedding, Gifts Feeding & Nursery, Health & Safety Needs etc.

Anna Kournikova’s Favorites – look at Anna Kournikova’s lifestyle and Personality

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Anna Kournikova was so far the most famous female athlete in the world has ever seen. In fact, he can not do even the best tennis player, but he has made the whole world behind him, because of his beauty and glamor. He gained a lot of popularity in a number of TV shows, series and movies.

Like any other people in the world, Anna Kournikova also has a number of favorites and hobbies. Some beautiful ex-tennis pro’s hobbies include watching TV, listening to music, dancing, swimming, reading, going to parties, and he also loves to play hockey during leisure times. Whenever he happens to visit any country, it is his hobby of collecting dolls popular in that country. He loves to spend time on the beaches. He also loves animals, art and fashion. Tokyo, London, Paris and New York are his favorite places to visit.

orange juice is said to be Anna Kournikova your favorite beverage and chocolate is surprising his favorite dessert. Steak and Sushi are her favorite food. Aside from tennis, she likes to play basketball, golf and hockey. He has replaced Bush, Elton John and Madonna. He loves to spend free time grass. Black is her favorite color and “Overhead” is her favorite tennis shot. Coming to tennis tournaments, Wimbledon and Roland Garros are her favorite tournaments so far. Tonight Show with Jay Leno, friends, and Melrose Place are his favorite TV shows, Austin Powers is his favorite movie.

3 Surprising About Mink coats

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Mink coats incredible way to inject a bit of elegance to your wardrobe. Fur has long been the number one choice of clothing for humanity, to represent its durability and natural beauty. Furs are quite expensive, which is why they should generally be considered an investment piece in your wardrobe. While you may have to shell out a lot of money in advance, mere longevity of these clothes justifies the cost. Many of the jacket owners reported for decades had passed before the fibers lost their natural brilliance.

If you are new furs, it can be difficult to know where to start. The first step in acquiring a new fur, or the understanding of the value of inherited mink, is to do your research. Here are some surprising facts you might not know mink.

Male vs. Female mink pelts

Many people are surprised to find the difference between men and women in mink pelts. In general, a man is denser fur, which can give the jacket its fullness and insulating quality, while the female is smaller and lighter. Female pelts are an option for many people their high luster and shine, and soft silky fur quality. Now male leather is not necessarily better than in women, or vice versa. It is simply a question of personal preference between the plush coat fuller, glossier, or form-fitting one. Each coat should be examined and assessed individually, regardless of gender.

Furs in obsolete types can be upgraded

If you inherit fur, which is ten or more years old, its form and style could get stuck in a time period you want to forget. If the great grandmother to leave you in the will of his fur, and you know it’s something you’ll never use, keep it updated to get into more modern look. Working with the fur is not very different from the work of any other textiles, various types of needles and threads are used, but the coat can be easily modified to upgrade a passing fad or an old classic.

There are, in fact, quite a lot of options to upgrade restyle or alter the hereditary coat new fashion piece to add some pop to your wardrobe. Consider new materials such as leather, microfiber, or knit. Fur could also be used in a number of other wardrobe pieces. For example, you are bound to stand out from the custom cardigan or a cloth coat with fur collar. There is no reason to give inherited jacket wasted. It is very easy to find furrier who help service, condition, or re-purpose a new treasure before you ever want to take them off.

Mink Requires Maintenance

If you are considering to buy a mink garment, above all, to understand that it is an investment and should be treated as such. Mink fur is incredibly flexible material, which can take up proper care of two decades. Keep mink store, when it is too hot to use. Ask for a jacket to be cleaned on a regular basis. An experienced furrier happy to provide storage and cleaning services for a small fee.

4 reasons why men wear skull rings

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decades ago, skull rings were popular with rock stars. Today, they are strongly worn by men. There are many types of these tires in the market. They range from low-cost units that you come across in your street designer units, only to find high-end stores. Men of all ages are going for these units and they are using them for various reasons, which include:


men are naturally intended to have a strong . There are some men who say that the tires in such a way to improve self-esteem feel better about themselves. This will help them to achieve more business and career.

The versatility of

When you hear the term skull rings the first thing that comes to mind is a big ugly ring that looks like a consuming to use, right? Although there are a large number of tires on the market, there are also many small rings, which are made of different noble models. In addition to the units that are different models, they are also made of different materials, including diamond, silver and gold. It is up to you to choose the one that suits you.


Since time memorial, tires have been a fashion statement. Due to women is more fashionable than men, the nature of most of the tires on the market is directed at women. In fact, a few decades ago, when a man was seen wearing a ring he was referred to as effeminate. The skull rings allow fashionable men pull off a good-looking without looking feminine.

describe the elegance and good taste

Earlier rings were worn by people who could not afford expensive conventional tires. Then the units were made from the bones and other cheap goods. With the coming designer rings made of gold, silver, diamond and other precious metals, the perception has changed greatly. These days, when you wear a skull ring is seen as a person of class and methods.


This is what you need to know about the skull rings. When wearing the units to avoid them, with many models. Go for simple designs. These units not only look good, they also allow you to easily mix and match a wide range of outfits.

When the units are made of different metals, it is recommended that they wear made of silver. Silver is a manly color silver ring in such a way to give you a masculine look.

Bust Nämä myyttejä Ukrainian Women & Girls

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Runsaasti harhaluuloja Ukrainan tytöille ja naisille kiertämään verkossa. Olen usein lukenut virkaa ja jopa vastaukset kysymyksiin kunnioitettavan sivustoja, jotka saavat eniten näkemyksiä ja he ovat kirjoittaneet ihmiset, jotka eivät ole koskaan olleet Ukrainaan tai päivätty paikallinen tyttö.

Jostain syystä nämä ihmiset ajattelevat, että he ovat päteviä arvioida naiset koko kansan, koska he tietävät jonkun, joka puhui tai päivätty ukrainalainen tyttö verkossa noin 15 vuotta sitten. Olisi hilpeä, jos se ei ollut niin säälittävä.

Katsotaan hälventää joitakin klassisia Ukrainan tyttöjen myyttejä. Mieti tosiasiat ole fiktiota ja nykypäivän todellisuuteen verrattuna siihen, mitä oli ollut 20 vuotta sitten.

4 tyypillinen myyttejä Ukrainian women

1. He elävät köyhyydessä. Syyrian pakolaiset kävellä ympäriinsä uusimman iPhone ja luulet naiset eurooppalaisesta maasta mennä ilman nykyaikaista vempaimia, Internet, ja italialainen muoti? Kyllä, niiden palkat ovat pienemmät, jos ajatellaan vastaavan omassa valuutassa. Kuitenkin hinnat maansa ovat myös huomattavasti pienempi. Voitko viettää viikon meren USD $ 300 um He voivat.
He voivat. Valtaosa Ukrainan naiset omistavat kotinsa suoraan, ei kiinnitys. Saatat olla vähemmän vapaa rahaa jäljellä maksettuaan laskuja kuin he tekevät. Joten, voit olla yksi elää köyhyydessä verrattuna niihin. Oikeastaan ​​on monia länsimaalaisten jotka liikkuvat elää Ukrainassa, koska rahansa menee niin pitkälle siellä. Mene YouTube ja katsella pari videoita ilmakuvia tai surina lennot yli Kiev, Odessa, tai Lviv. Sinut vaikuttunut.

2. He haluavat mennä naimisiin varakkaan ulkomaalaisia. Naiset kaikkien kansojen mieluummin rikkaat herrat huonosta kaverit. Se tuskin uutinen. Yhden tyttöä kansallisuudesta haluavat tavata kunnon ja vakaa kaveri kun pohdimme asettuminen. Ukrainan tytöt eivät ole mitään erilaista. Ei ole kansallinen tekijä tässä.

3. Ukrainan naiset eivät ole uran toiveita. Kotimaassaan nyt ei ole paljon uramahdollisuuksia takia talouskriisin viimeisen 2 vuoden aikana (2014-2016). Keskipalkat laskenut puoleen ja paljon yrityksiä suljettiin. Tämän vuoksi monet Ukrainalaiset mennä töihin ulkomaille. Läheiset Puola on yli 1 miljoona ukrainalaisia ​​työskentelevät siellä. Sitten he tulevat kotiin, ostaa $ 15,000 asuntoja ja elää melko hyvin. Koska he eivät tiedä kieltä täydellisesti tai ei ole paikallinen pätevyys, Ukrainalaiset työskentelevät usein junior kantoja tai ne, jotka on helppo saada (kerääminen ja pakkaaminen hedelmiä, esimerkiksi). Se ei tarkoita, että ne eivät ole uran toiveita, mutta ne eivät yksinkertaisesti mitä he voivat tukeakseen heidän perheensä kotiin. Kausitöihin ovat yksinkertaisin saada. Hän saattaa olla asteen opettajana tai jopa lääkärin, mutta työskennellä kassa Euroopassa. Tällaiset työt ovat helposti ulkomaalaisia ​​ja maksetaan paremmin kuin mitä hän olisi saanut Ukrainassa tekee hänen pätevää työtä.

4. Tytöt Ukraina ovat kulta-kaivurit. Katso lukuisia Sugar Daddy sivustoja ja nähdä missä maissa naiskäyttäjät tulevat. Ovatko ne ukrainalaiset? Ei, useimmat niistä ovat Länsi tyttöjä ja naisia. Toki jokainen kansa on sen osuus kulta-kaivamaan naisilla. Mutta nämä tyypit ovat helppo poimia kenenkään kanssa vähän kokemusta dating. Kaverit, jotka lankeavat kulta-kaivurit ovat usein käyttäjien itsensä. Erityisesti niitä, jotka haluavat mennessä tai naimisiin tytön 20-30 vuotta nuorempi, ne todennäköisesti törmätä muutamia kaivaminen tyyppiä ja kasvot ongelmia. Hyvä tytöt mieluummin kaverit ikätovereidensa tai hieman vanhempia (5-10 vuotta). Kaikki mitä tarvitset on oltava vakituinen työpaikka ja eivät alkoholin väärinkäyttäjiä. Jos näiden lisäksi merkittäviä myönteisiä ominaisuuksia myös halu asettua ja ehkä on vauvoja, niin voit kaapata heidän jakamattoman huomion. Ukraina on yksi pienimmistä miesten ja naisten suhde maailmassa: vain 86 miestä 100 naista. Getting elinikäinen kumppani on asia siellä, varsinkin kun otetaan huomioon, että monet Ukrainian guys muuttaa tai työ ulkomailla kriisin vuoksi. Tytöt eivät ole siirtymässä työpaikkoja että usein, koska naiset ovat alttiimpia tuntemattomassa ympäristössä.

Jos nyt ymmärtää, kuinka nämä myytit ovat epätosia, ymmärtää, että kukaan ei voi mahdollisesti päivämäärä tarpeeksi naisia ​​päättelemään koko kansakunta. Niillä on luonteenomaisia ​​slaavilainen kasvojen piirteitä, että monet kaverit löytää houkuttelevia.

Kun puhutaan tytöistä Ukrainasta, ajatella Mila Kunis tai Olga Kurylenko. Ne ovat sellaisia ​​naiset, jotka ovat tyypillisiä näköisiä kyseistä maata.

Onko järkeä kokouksessa joku kuten nämä tytöt? Toki, miksi ei?

Käytä suositeltua vinkkejä mennessä Ukrainan naisten ja voit selvittää itse, mikä on totta ja mikä ei.

Onko upea aikaa!